The most popular random talk on green environmenta

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Random talk on the development of green packaging and environmental protection in the context of green environmental packaging. The first stage is the preliminary legislative management. The garbage removal and reduction law promulgated in june1972 did not restrict the generation of wastes, so that in the following years, the growth of garbage remained high and still caused pollution to the environment. The second stage is the whole process legislative management. That is, the legislative management combining source reduction and end disposal. Since 1980, people have realized that the deterioration of the environment is closely related to human social and economic activities. The understanding of environmental pollution has shifted from the simple treatment of the end to the control of the source. In 1986, the original waste law was amended and the law on avoidance and waste disposal was issued. Compared with the previous emphasis on waste removal, the law gives priority to avoiding or reducing the amount of waste, emphasizes recycling, and only incinerates or landfills the waste that cannot be utilized by the current technology. The third stage is the legislative management of environmental elements. That is, the legislative management of the coordinated development of resource circulation and environmental protection

in September, 1994, the circular economy law promulgated by Germany fully reflected the above guiding ideology. It differs from the traditional GDP and green packaging in six aspects: (1) it emphasizes the management principle of comprehensive utilization of resources, which makes it face great opportunities and close the cycle of materials. First of all, we must focus on avoiding the generation of waste, especially reducing its quantity and toxicity; Secondly, it must be recycled or used as available energy; Finally, the remaining packaging waste is landfilled in an environmentally compatible manner. (2) The obligation to close the cycle of resources is stipulated. For the packaging materials used, they can enter the market only when there is a guarantee for the correct recycling or proper disposal of the generated wastes; (3) It stipulates the environmental protection of manufacturers, the obligations of packaging product producers to avoid waste, recycle, reuse and dispose of packaging waste, and puts forward the production system obligation to be responsible for the whole life cycle; When the toxic components of the product are too high to handle and cannot be guaranteed to be compatible with the environment, it is not allowed to enter the market for circulation; (4) If the environmental cost of packaged products is specified and a deposit is required, the demand shall be indicated; The producers and sellers of products are also required to bear the obligation of recovery and related costs. (5) It stipulates the obligation to avoid packaging waste in order to protect the environment, that is, the product design should consider the closed circulation of materials, low consumption, less waste, etc., and encourage consumers to use cleaner production products; There are safety disposal measures for wastes. (6) It specifies the final disposal method and management supervision requirements of environmentally compatible packaging wastes. The packaging laws and regulations of other countries generally follow the circular economy law of Germany and adopt policies and measures such as economic inhibition, producers, economic encouragement, legalized management, and management of the whole process of product life cycle

looking at the world's green packaging laws and regulations and the development situation in various aspects, it can be seen that green packaging and environmental protection are undergoing the following eight changes: (1) environmental protection and green economy awareness are moving from local to global; (2) On the level, it is moving from the internal affairs of various countries to internationalization; (3) The strategy is moving from "legal system" to "economy", that is, the strategy will become the internalization of environmental costs through economic and market functions; (4) Laws, regulations and policies of various countries have become increasingly sound and strict, and a series of effective measures have been put forward to avoid, recycle, utilize and dispose of them; (5) The introduction of a new type of environmental factor endowment (packaging environmental protection tax); (6) Cleaner production and ISO14000 environmental certification to promote the sustainable development of enterprises; (7) The awareness of green economy, the green consumption movement and the government's green economic policy encourage the production and consumption of green packaging products; (8) The application scope of product life cycle assessment technology is expanding

although China has promulgated the law on the prevention and control of environmental pollution by solid wastes and other relevant regulations, there is no special packaging management regulation. Since 2001, some notices or temporary management measures have been issued to solve the white pollution of packaging. However, due to the unsmooth system, the relevant laws and regulations are not perfect. Due to the absence of special packaging laws and regulations in China, the white pollution caused by packaging waste has not been cured for a long time. On May 15 last year, the relevant departments of China issued the report on improving the quality of environmental friendly tableware products and strengthening investigation and punishment. To thoroughly solve this problem, auto parts can not only rely on the administrative orders of a certain department, but also take the road of rule of law

China's GDP ranks 7th in the world, but its per capita GDP ranks 110th in the world. With the improvement of people's living standards and the vigorous development of urban construction, China's urban population will increase from the current 300million to more than 500million in a short time, and the total amount of packaging waste will increase at a rate of more than 10%. If no measures are taken, the heavy burden of garbage on the environment will be unbearable, and the negative impact on China's green economy and green GDP can not be ignored, which will also affect green packaging and environmental protection

although China has a vast territory, available resources, especially rare resources, are far from meeting the needs of economic development. China's per capita share of resources is ranked 110th in the world. The legislation of environmental cost and packaging management should be put on the agenda immediately. The recycling of packaging waste needs to be regulated through legislative measures to promote the common and healthy development of economy and environment with a small amount of watch oil

4. Environmental cost of packaging

a great man said that economics is the oldest art and the most novel science. In fact, all human activities are inseparable from economics, and the world environment and development, packaging and environmental protection are inseparable from economics. To understand the theory of environmental cost in economics, it is necessary to introduce two major theories in Economics: one is Adam Smith's absolute cost theory; The second is elifheckscher's environmental cost theory

Adam Smith is the most famous outstanding representative of economics in the world. The center of his theory is economic liberalism. He advocates international trade according to absolute cost. Swedish economist e · herkscher initiated the theory of environmental cost in his environmental factor endowment theory. He divided environmental factors into three categories: natural resources (including land), capital and labor. The natural resources are divided into five categories: agricultural and forestry resources, fishery and hunting resources, mineral resources, hydraulic resources and transportation resources. The theories represented by them have played a positive role in the industrial revolution and international trade in western countries, and have a great impact on the development of the world economy. The theories they advocated, such as giving full play to "natural advantages" in production (i.e. environmental cost theory), international trade and international division of labor, are now more viable

environmental cost refers to the sum of the costs required to solve and compensate for environmental pollution and ecological damage during the production, use, transportation and recycling of products. At present, China's plastic machinery industry is changing in the global market pattern. Generally speaking, it consists of three parts: one is the cost that should be paid for normal resource exploitation, acquisition and use; Second, environmental purification costs and environmental damage costs related to resource exploitation, acquisition, use and product use and recovery; The third is the benefit loss that the present generation can not use this part of resources for future generations. The world environment and development, as well as packaging and environmental protection have environmental costs

according to the principles of economics, any product and activity cannot be separated from the environment, so all products and activities have the problem of environmental cost. For example, the reality is that environmental resources are over utilized or abused, enterprises and institutions discharge waste water into rivers to pollute the water source, factories discharge waste gas into the air to pollute the fresh air, people randomly pile up waste to pollute the environment, and so on... The main reason is that the cost of using the environment has not been included in the cost accounting, and the polluters have not paid for polluting the environment, But this does not mean that human beings do not pay a price. Generally speaking, such expenses are borne by society, organizations or others, which is an extremely unreasonable phenomenon. According to the "principles of environment and development" of the United Nations and the "three principles of WTO", only by letting relevant organizations (enterprises, companies, manufacturers) or units bear these costs can the world's environmental resources enter the resource allocation of the market system, so as to prevent the abuse of environmental resources and environmental pollution and ensure the environment and development of mankind

in order to maintain the environment of fair competition in international trade, the WTO has put forward "three principles" (Sustainability principle, coordination principle and fairness principle), with special emphasis on the trade strategy that Member States should not implement subsidies. For example, when a country's environmental standards are low and its enterprises are unable to bear the huge costs of environmental pollution control, in order to protect its own ecological environment, the government provides environmental subsidies to its products and transfers the environmental costs that should be borne by enterprises to the society, which obviously violates the principle of fair trade. It can export a large number of products to other countries at a lower sales price, which in turn constitutes "eco dumping", It is bound to encounter anti-dumping from other countries. Therefore, the WTO advocates the implementation of "three principles" in international trade and the use of eco labelling to ensure the fairness of international trade

in addition, more importantly, the implementation of environmental costing is conducive to bringing environmental costs into the national economic accounting system, establishing a resource value compensation mechanism and a market competition mechanism, reasonably adjusting the flow direction, structure and scale of environmental factors, and preventing the "alienation" of scarce resources into environmental pollution. Making the environment cost can not only solve the source of funds for environmental protection, but also truly reflect the value of products. It is conducive to realizing the optimal allocation of domestic environmental resources, making use of domestic and international resources and markets, optimizing the utilization of environmental resources in a wider range, achieving the purpose of protecting the environment, and synchronizing the "environment and development" of the world

5. Environmental protection packaging design

environmental protection packaging design is put forward for the purpose of world environment and development, protecting the earth's ecological balance and protecting the earth's resources. Therefore, there are four principles for environmental protection packaging design:

1) international principles. Mainly the "five requirements" of the United Nations (see above) and the "three principles" of the WTO. The three principles are: (a) the principle of sustainability, that is, protecting the environment, ensuring the sharing of world resources and sustainable use; (b) The principle of coordination, that is, packaging and environmental protection cooperate with each other and develop harmoniously; (c) The principle of fairness means that contemporary people should consider the interests of future generations and use them fairly

2) in the design of environmental protection packaging, the limited mineral resources, biological resources, energy resources and ecological balance of the earth should be considered first. Then select appropriate packaging materials and packaging schemes according to the data provided by LCA assessment. ISO, the international organization for standardization, has also put forward feasible schemes in this regard

3) China's annual packaging waste is up to more than 20 million tons, so this is an important aspect of environmental protection packaging engineering design. When packaging is "born", it is necessary to arrange the "afterevents" of packaging waste: recycling, processing and reuse, or ways or methods of producing other products, so as to form a perfect virtuous circle of packaging waste and reduce the load (impact) on the environment. Packaging materials and accessories(

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